The article Maqam Analysis: A Primer (PDF) | (larger print PDF), published Fall 2013 in Music Theory Spectrum, provides the theoretical justifications for the claims made on this site. This page presents all of the audio samples referenced in that paper, with links to the equivalent sections of this website's analysis track, where you will find many more audio samples illustrating the same principles argued in the paper. The Introduction on this site lays out the broader theoretical framework for the analyses and theories presented in the article and the website; while some may feel that the "introduction" makes more sense after the article, others may accept it as a good starting point.
Before proceeding, any readers unfamiliar with ajnas and maqamat (for that matter, any readers who are not experienced practitioners of Arabic music), should make sure they can distinguish and identify the most common ajnas by ear, which is the fundamental skill necessary for analysis as well as active listening and practice. Distinguishing ajnas by ear is covered in the Beginner Track, while the most common ajnas are illustrated with audio samples in the "Basic Ajnas" section. Readers are also advised to consult the pages on How to use the site (including reading the samples) and the Glossary.
For a fairly complete list of the maqamat, broken down into ajnas according to the conventional definition, visit: Maqam World, where you will find Example 1a: Maqam Bayati, and Example 1b: Maqam Rast.
See II. "Jins Baggage" on the analysis track for more examples.
from Sama3i Bayati al-Aryan:
emphasis on 5--resolving to 4 in next phrases
w/ baggage underneath, scale degrees 2 & 3
from Nura Nura:
"Husseini" Nahawand/ not parsing out bayati lawazim
includes start of wahda for mawwal
including baggage underneath, 7 - 6 - 7 - 8
use of raised 6 above Rast to descend
See Maqam Bayati page for the fuller network of ajnas within Bayati; see also
See III. Previously Unnamed Ajnas on the analysis track for more examples.
See Jins Secondary Rast on the analysis track for more examples and longer sections of the songs used here.
From Ya Shadi il-Alhan:
transcription starts last two phrases of this sample
still emphasizing/tonicizing 5 here
a unique occurrence; the typical jins on 5 tonicizes 8
flat-7 pulls us back here
dips all the way down to 2 in Rast area
back to typical use, tonicizing 8 (contrast with #13)
really only flat-6 to 5
end of verse 1
See Jins Hijazkar on the analysis track for more examples and longer sections of the songs used here.
prominent note a step below tonic
From Ghannili Shwayya:
again, melodic inclusion of 4
See Secondary Rast and Nahawand pathways in Rast in the Common Pathways section. See also the Maqam Rast Network on the Demo Site. Here's an example from Mawwal "Fein Ya Gameel Wa3dak" using the ajnas in Example 13a:
dips to 7 & 6